2008年6月12日 星期四

[Debate]珊瑚蛇與奶蛇擬態經典案例的諸多疑點


Milk snake與Coral snake所形成的putative mimicry complex成為擬態生物學研究的經典已達一世紀之久. 但是這個擬態群一直存在著兩個違背Batesian mimicry預測的基本問題: (1) 被認為是mimic的奶蛇數量遠比被認為是model的coral snake為多; (2) 兩者不一定(而且經常)是不共棲的. 針對model與mimic不一定共棲的問題, 已經有"allopatric mimicry"這個理論所討論, 對於兩者個相對豐度的問題則應追溯至Brower & Brower (1962)以及Greene & McDiarmid (1981)的文章. Harper & Pfennig (2008)的文章則以族群遺傳學的方法證實了身為mimic的milk snake雄性會進行遷徙, 而且遷徙到coral snake不存在的地區, 間接地提供allopatric mimicry存在的族群遺傳學事證. 然而倒底是什麼記憶力, 學習能力與辯識力好的predator讓allopatric mimicry能夠存在, 則應該是下一個研究的目標.
  • Brattstrom, B.H. 1955. The Coral Snake 'Mimic' Problem and Protective Coloration. Evolution 9(2): 217-219.
  • Dunn, E.R. 1949. Relative Abundance of Some Panamanian Snakes. Ecology 30(1): 39-57.
  • Brower, L. P. & Brower, J. V. Z. 1962. The relative abundance of model and mimic butterflies in natural populations of the Battus philenor mimicry complex. Ecology 43: 154–158.
  • Clarke, C. & Sheppard, P. M. 1975. The genetics of the mimetic butterfly Hypolimnas bolina (L.). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 272: 229–265.
  • Greene, H. W. & McDiarmid, R. Y. 1981. Coral snake mimicry: does it occur? Science 213: 1207–1212.
  • Harper, G.R., Pfennig, D.W. 2008. Selection overrides gene flow to break down maladaptive mimicry. Nature 451: 1103-1106.
  • Pfennig, D. W., Harcombe, W. R. & Pfennig, K. S. 2001. Frequency-dependent Batesian mimicry. Nature 410: 323.
  • Ruxton, G. D., Sherratt, T. N. & Speed, M. P. 2004. Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
  • Waldbauer, G. P. & Sternburg, J. G. 1987. Experimental field demonstration that two aposematic butterfly color patterns do not confer protection against birds in Northern Michigan. Am. Midl. Nat. 118: 145–152.
  • Wallace, A. R. 1870. Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection, Macmillan, London.
其它以奶蛇/珊瑚蛇所形成的擬態群為研究的文章可見David W. Pfennig研究群的著作目錄.

2 則留言:

阿修羅 提到...

所以說,在廣大的茫茫網海裡,存在著許多喜歡研究動物的專家與高手。

您很多文章有不少獨到的見解與特別文獻,蠻幸運能不小心逛到您的網誌的..........^^

motorcycle 提到...

謝謝大大光臨啊, 祝您生意順利